Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664)PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS: Austria (with French and
German mercenaries) vs. Ottoman Empire
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S): Hungary and Transylvania
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES: A continuation of the
Transylvanian-Turkish War of 1657–62, this war was
fought over possession of portions of Hungary
OUTCOME: Turkey was confirmed in its suzerainty over
Transylvania, but Transylvania and part of Hungary were
demilitarized for a period of 20 years.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS:
Austria, 60,000; Ottoman Empire, 120,000
CASUALTIES: Austria (and mercenaries), 9,000 killed;
Ottoman Empire, 8,000 killed
TREATIES: The Treaty of Vasvar, 1664
Ottoman victory in the TRANSYLVANIAN-TURKISH WAR of
1657–62 emboldened the Ottomans to invade Hungary
with some 120,000 men under Grand Vizier Ahmen
Koprulu Pasha (1635–76) in 1663. Ultimately, the Ottomans
had as their objective the taking of Vienna itself.
However, an Austro-Hungarian force under Adam Forgach
(1643–63) successfully blocked the advance of the invaders
at Neuhausel, and the advance did not resume until spring
1664, now with an army reduced to about 80,000 men.
The Ottoman force was met in battle by some 60,000
Austrians (augmented by French and German mercenaries)
at the convent of St. Gotthard on the Raab River on
August 1, 1664. Prince Charles of Lorraine (1604–75)
engaged in single combat with an unidentified Ottoman
artillery officer. Charles killed his opponent, which
thereby neutralized Ottoman artillery. In the meantime,
Austrian cavalry and mercenary infantry prevailed against
the numerically superior Ottoman force.
Losses were very heavy: perhaps 9,000 Austrians and
mercenaries killed and 8,000 Ottoman troops killed. Both
sides were eager for peace and on August 11 concluded
the Treaty of Vasvar, calling for 20 years of peace.
See also AUSTRO-TURKISHWAR (1566); AUSTRO-TURKISH
WAR (1551–1553); AUSTRO-TURKISH WAR (1591–1606);
AUSTRO-TURKISH WAR (1683–1699); AUSTRO-TURKISH
Further reading: Rhoads Murphey, Ottoman Warfare:
1500–1700 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University
Press, 1999); V. J. Parry and M. J. Kitch, Hapsburg and
Ottoman Empires (London: Sussex Publications, 1982).